There were many works published In Georgia , in which the authours tried to explain the manuscript of Ioane-Zosime - “Praise and Glorofication of the Georgian language.” If we judge according to the contents of this text, full of esoteric wisdom, the monk, Ioane-Zosime is its last screbe, nobody cnows. Much is said even by the title of the text “praise and glorification of the Georgia language”; but why? What duty can be put on to the Georgian language that made Ioane-Zosime call out from the 10th century:- Georgians, glory to the language of Lazarus. What does it mean? What was put into the Georgian language and by whom? And if anything was put into it when was it done?
This text, glorifying the Georgian language , has been discussed by many scholars us a historical monument of Gnostic character it is not my aim to argue wheather the text of the praise is really grostic or not; and if there is an idea among the Georgian thinkers that the Georgian language and land really head and connection with judaistic origins, then it become clear that some of my versions, connected with the some problems, are close to the truth.
Ioane-Zosime is supposed to have lived and worked in the 10th century A.D. this manuscript –“Praise and glorification of the Georgian language “ must belong to this period us well. I mean the last copying of the text by Ioane-Zosime. Probably historical date of the “praise “ is quite true, since the calculation of the days by Zosime exactly coincides with the division of the according for the gospel.
The “praise” tells
us about the wolking up of the dormant Georgian language, in which there is
a great cosmogonic secret. This text has been discussed by the Georgian
scholars more than readers. That is why the text of the praise remains us
vague, so far in Georgia as the Bible is over the world.
The promise of the "praise" is the greatest and I think very dangerous. After such long time, when many foreigners no longer know anything about the existence of Georgia, they have to face such huge information and this information is coming from a small, impecunious Georgia. TO BE CONTINIUED......
Georgian writing was first seen in the 7th century B.C. The
first examples include inscriptions in the Georgian monastery of the Holy Cross
in Palestine, in the Bethlehem desert (Bir-ell-Katt), as well as those in the
Sioni Church of Bolnisi, south of Tbilisi. The source of the Georgian script is
a controversial problem. Some scholars believe that it appeared long before the
Christian epoch, while others relate its appearance to the establishment of the
Christian religion. They do not deny the possible existence of a certain
original writing in the pre-Christian era. The oldest books translated then were
the Gospels and the Old Testament. The Passion of St. Shushanik was written in
the 5th century. Another such work by an anonymous author, The Martyrdom of
Evstate Mtskheteli is from the 6th century.
The basilica-type churches of Bolnisi and Urbnisi, dating from the 5th century, and the unique cruciform-domed Jvari church of the end of 6th and the beginning of the 7th century near Mtskheta are the most significant monuments of architecture. In the mid-5th century, Vakhtang Gorgasali I became King of Kartli, leading the struggle against the Persians. He is known also as a founder of Tbilisi and he prepared the way for transferring the capital of Georgia from Mtskheta to Tbilisi. Gorgasali recaptured the Georgian lands to the south-west as well as east (Hereti). The initial success achieved in the struggle against Persia came to naught by the resistance of the Eristavs, the highest feudal nobility and their alliance with the Iranians. The struggle against both enemies ended in King Vakhtang's defeat and his death on the battlefield in 502. In 523, having subdued Kartli, the Persians moved into the Kingdom of Egrisi (also known as Lazica) in western Georgia. Lazica was still dependent on Byzantium, but this dependence was growing weaker and the kings of Lazica gained more independence. The rulers of Lazica tried to use the hostility between Byzantium and Iran to their own advantage, but the war ended with a fifty year long peace treaty (562 A.D.), and West Georgia finally found herself subjugated by Byzantium.
Foreign Trade Regimes. Reforms carried out in recent years in Georgia, including serious legal reforms, are working successfully to create a favourable foreign trade regime in the country. Since 1995 the following major reforms have taken place in Georgian legislation:
Export of goods requiring an export license have been reduced to the following classes:
Collections and collectors' pieces of zoological, botanical, mineral, anatomical, historical, archaeological, paleonthological, ethnographic or numismatic interest (HS - 9705);
Wood and timber (4401, 4403, 4404, 4406, 4407);
Seeds of Caucasus Pine (120999100);
Ferrous and non-ferrous metal scrap (7204, 7404, 7602).
The system of compulsory registration of foreign trade contracts was eliminated in November 1997.
The establishment of favourable
trade regimes with partner countries through bilateral and multilateral
agreements has commenced. During the period 1992 - 1998, Georgia signed trade
agreements with 22 countries. Agreements on free trade have been signed with
eight CIS countries and Georgia already has working free trade agreements with
Russia, Ukraine, Azerbaijan, Armenia, Kazakhstan and Turkmenistan. Currently a
multilateral agreement on CIS free trade zone is being enforced. According to
these agreements signatories to the agreement need not use customs duties and
taxes for exports or imports of the goods originated in the territory of one
party and destined to the territory of the other party.
Furthermore, Georgia has become a part of several international conventions.
On October 6, 1999 Georgia became a member of the World Trade Organization (WTO) which granted Georgia the status of the Most Favoured Nation with 135 WTO member countries. Through the mechanisms of this organisation, Georgia will be protected from discrimination, unfair competition, falsification and unjustified limitations.
In 1996 Georgia signed an agreement on partnership and cooperation with the European Union which deals with economic relations in almost every sector. In fact the agreement covers all sectors of the economy.
In 1999 Georgia became a member of the Council of Europe with full rights, which will further facilitate trade-economic relations between Georgia and member countries of the European Union.
Many countries have granted to Georgia reductions in import customs taxes to their countries, under the General System of Preferences. These include the countries of the European Union, Switzerland, the Czech Republic, Slovakia, Canada and Japan. This is one of the most important influences on the successful growth of exports for Georgia. The effective use of facilities such as GSP will substantially promote Georgian export development.
Law of Georgia "On Technical Barriers to Trade". The law "On Technical Barriers to Trade" lays down the basis for eliminating the technical barriers to trade during the process of the preparation, adoption and application of the technical regulations, standards and the procedures for the assessment of conformity.
The national technical regulations and standards should not create unnecessary obstacles to trade, which will put national products in favourable conditions. Therefore, the development of the national technical regulations and standards should be carried out on the basis of a direct use of the international standards.
Georgian legislation did not envisage the concept of technical regulations. The concept of technical regulations was defined by Law of Georgia "On Standardization" adopted in 1999. The technical regulations is a legal act, which defines the technical specifications for products or service, which is done directly or by means of referring to Georgian standards and requiring that complying with these standards is compulsory.
The principles of the state standards that are effective in Georgia envisage the application of the national standards on a compulsory basis from the moments of its effectiveness. However, based on the principles that define the standards as voluntary, the international practice envisages two-stage approach to making a standard as mandatory requirement: the standard that was adopted by national body is optional and it may be used by any party, however it will become mandatory, if it is defined by:
Such stipulation is indicated in the technical regulations;
A producer or supplier of services assumed such responsibility by the assessment of conformity.
The first chapter of the present draft law lays down the legal basis for eliminating the technical barriers to trade during the process of the preparation, adoption and application of the technical regulations, standards and the procedures for the assessment of conformity.
It defines the terms, including "Technical barriers to trade", which in fact is the discrepancy in requirements from those used at a national level or in international practice with respect to the technical regulations, standards and the procedures for the assessment of conformity.
It defines the different categories of technical regulations, which include:
Legislative acts, the decrees of the President of Georgia, which consist of the product requirements;
The national standards, the application of which is mandatory;
The agency specific normative acts issued by government bodies, the competency of which, according to the legislation of Georgia, includes laying down the mandatory product requirements.
The second chapter defines the requirements to the content of technical regulations, preparation of technical regulations and procedures for the assessment of conformity, coordination of the activities related to the development of technical regulations, and recognizing the technical regulations of foreign countries as an equivalent to the national technical regulations.
Chapter three defines the procedure of applying technical regulations and standards, which includes making references to standards in technical regulations, fulfillment of standards as a mandatory requirement, fulfillment of standards as a voluntary requirement, and the national arrangements for applying the technical regulations and standards with respect to the national and imported products.
Chapter four defines the principles of providing information relating to technical barriers to trade. The main emphasis is placed on the Central Information Center of Standards, the main function of which is the relationship with the World Trade Organization. The Central Information Center of Standards provides information about the technical regulations, standards and the procedures for the assessment of conformity that are already developed or are in the process of development. It should carry out the coordination of activities of the centers set up in this field by other government bodies.
Chapter five defines the authority and responsibility of the National Standardizing Body and other government bodies.
Chapter six lays down the principles of the state control and supervision on complying with the requirements of technical regulations, as well as the responsibility for violating the requirements of the law.
Chapter seven states that the process of developing technical regulations has to be financed by the state on a mandatory basis.
Chapter eight contains the provisional clauses, which states that the government bodies should adopt and publish those technical regulations, which envisage complying on a mandatory basis with the standards that ensure the quality of products, processes and service, security, protection of human life, protection of the health, property and environment. With this respect it will be significant to employ, whenever developing the technical regulations, the directives issued by the countries that are members of the European Union.
Chapter nine defines the amendments that have to be made into Georgian legislation after this law becomes effective.
The Law of Georgia "On Technical Barriers to Trade" should initiate the practical efforts towards the preparation, adoption and application of the technical regulations, which will be step forward towards setting up voluntary standardization system that is one of the attributes of modern market relationships.
CONCERNING THE “PAISE”
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